WHAT IS CBD?
The ENDocannabinoid (ECS) System
While cannabidiol interacts with many receptors, it is primarily active in the Endocannabinoid system, or ECS. This system assists in the regulation of many important functions such as immune-system responses, sleep and pain. It consists of two main receptors, CB1 and CB2, which are located throughout the body. CBD does not bind to either receptor; it activates them both, simultaneously influencing the body to use its own endocannabinoids more effectively. This includes the increased of 2-AG, another endocannabinoid that stimulates both CB1 And CB2.
-CB1 receptors are predominantly found in our nervous system, connective tissues, glands, and residually found in the kidneys, lungs, and liver.
-CB1 seem to play a role in the maintenance of homeostasis, our bodies internal stability, and affects the production and spread of neurotransmitters. --Several studies suggest that CB1 also influence pain tolerance, appetite, memory and focus, as well as pleasure.
-CB2 receptors are part of the immune system, often found in white blood cells, tonsils and the spleen.
-They are involved in many functions, including immune suppression and apoptosis (programmed cell death).
-Studies suggest that CB2 plays a role in various immune disfunctions, from liver and kidney, to neurodegenerative diseases.
non-ecs receptors affected by cbd
CBD blocks GPR55, which can reduce seizures effectively by reducing activity in the hippocampus, a prominent brain region for seizure activity. Blocking GPR55 activity by ingesting CBD is theorized to reduce gastrointestinal inflammation, as Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis (IBS) have elevated GPR55 levels. This can reduce inflammatory and neuropathic pain
By activating the TRPV-1 receptor, Cannibidiol helps mediate our pain perception and body temperature, and reduces inflammation.
Cannibidiol, in large doses, activates the serotonin receptor, acting as an antidepressant. It also affects a series of processes including sleep, pain perception, anxiety, appetite, nausea and addiction mechanisms.
CBD's activation of adenosine receptors can result in both anti-anxiety and anti-inflammatory effects. Adenosine receptors are involved in the production and release of dopamine and glutamate, which are two powerful neurotransmitters.
-Dopamine plays a crucial role in motor control, motivation, cognition and reward mechanisms.
-Glutamate is involved in memory, learning and comprehension.
Cannabidiol affects opioid receptors, known for their role in pain regulation. CBD "specifically attenuated (weakened) heroin-seeking behavior," Opioid receptors are the key targets of highly abused pharmaceutical pain killers, such as morphine, heroin, and fentanyl.
CBD AND CANCER
It is difficult to promote the effect that cannabis and CBD have on cancer without legal risk. Listed below are quotes found within scientific research, along with where we found them.
“In verified cell lines—which is often the first stage of cancer research—GPR55 activation is thought to have pro-tumor effects while blockade of GPR55 activity (i.e., the effects of CBD) has anti-tumor effects in colorectal cancer, breast cancer, pancreatic cancer, and brain cancer. CBD’s direct effect on these cancers remains an exciting yet untested future direction of cancer research.” - Josh Kaplan (April 4, 2018 What Is the GPR55 Receptor and Why Is It Important in CBD’s Benefits?)
“Studies in mice and rats have shown that cannabinoids may inhibit tumor growth by causing cell death, blocking cell growth, and blocking the development of blood vessels needed by tumors to grow. Laboratory and animal studies have shown that cannabinoids may be able to kill cancer cells while protecting normal cells,” states the National Cancer Institute."Cannabinoids may have benefits in the treatment of cancer-related side effects," they continue "Cannabis has been shown to kill cancer cells in the laboratory."
They continue to assert that "A laboratory study of cannabidiol in estrogen receptor positive and estrogen receptor negative breast cancer cells showed that it caused cancer cell death while having little effect on normal breast cells.” states the National Cancer Institute.
They continue to assert “A study in mice showed that cannabinoids may protect against inflammation of the colon and may have potential in reducing the risk of colon cancer, and possibly in its treatment.”
ENDOCANNABINOID Deficiency theory
As mentioned, we must keep our endocannabinoid system balanced to function optimally. The Endocannabinoid Deficiency Theory (CED) states that if our ECS system is unbalanced, we could experience issues with digestion, mood, pain tolerance and sleep, along with the other physiological systems that are affected by the Endocannabinoid System (ECS). The CED theory also proposes that these deficiencies could arise due to genetics or could be acquired from certain injuries or disease. Migraine, fibromyalgia, and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) may be evidence for the CED Theory. They all show increased likelihood of anxiety or depression. All three are diagnosed based on subjective criteria, and none show physical evidence or objective laboratory findings, leading them all to have been labeled psychosomatic at some point. While some only have one of these syndromes, risk of developing multiple is common.
Possible Related Symptoms
-Phantom Limb Pain
-Irritable Bowel Syndrome
-Neonatal Failure to Thrive
-Post Traumatic Stress Disorder(PTSD)